2007 exam collecting

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2007 exam collecting

Post  Admin on Fri Apr 11, 2008 12:08 pm

Copper IUD mode of action:
sperm motility
microthrombi

MRI:
ionising radiation?
no adverse effect on fetus?
detect fetal cardiac abn?

USG:
probe: array of magnets?
doppler to detect fetal heart movement?

facial hair increased by:
oestrogen?
testerone?
spirolactone?


characterics:
pass thro' origin?
slope = 0?
pass thro the mean?
unaffected by changing scale?
unaffected by changing dependent variable?


many many statistics qs....some from past papers other were outside



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I suggest to review past paper in the last day before the exam.
Below many q from another forum about 2007 M
---------------------------------------------------------------------
From Onexamination:
Copper containing IUDs:
F should be changed every year
F have a high incidence of actinomycoces colonization than plastic devices
T Cause a relative increased in ectopic pregnancy
T have been implicated as a cause of fatal infection in pregnancies
F do not cause menorrhagia

Comments:
Inert devices can be left in place until the menopause, but copper devices need renewal every 3-5 years, depending on the make, because of the gradual absorption of copper. Copper IUCDs produce local concentrations of copper salts which apparently give some protection against bacterial contamination. Pelvic infection with actinomyces organisms is most likely with a plastic device that has been in situ for some years. While the rate of intrauterine pregnancy is reduced, that of ectopics is not. Hence, there is a relative increase in ectopic pregnancy after IUCD insertion. If an IUCD is left in place there is a slight risk of intrauterine infection, preterm labour and antepartum haemorrhage, but most pregnancies are uncomplicated and the device is delivered with the placenta. Increased menstrual loss may be caused by increased fibrinolytic activity which occurs round the IUCD. The progestogen intrauterine system (IUS) reduces menstrual flow and often dysmenorrhoea.

Which of the following is/are true concerning MRI?
A It involves ionizing radiation (False)
B Has no recognised side effects on the foetus (True)
C The pregnant mother should be turned to her left side during scanning
(True)
D Tissue with high hydrogen concentrations are difficult to distinguish False)
E Blood vessels appear white on scanning (False)

Comments:
Water is a molecule composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The nuclei of the hydrogen atoms are able to act as microscopic compass needles. When the body is exposed to a strong magnetic field, the nuclei of the hydrogen atoms are directed into order - stand "to attention". When submitted to pulses of radio waves, the energy content of the nuclei changes. After the pulse, a resonance wave is emitted when the nuclei return to their previous state. The small differences in the oscillations of the nuclei are detected. By advanced computer processing, it is possible to build up a three-dimensional image that reflects the chemical structure of the tissue, including differences in the water content and in movements of the water molecules. This results in a very detailed image of tissues and organs in the investigated area of the body. In this manner, pathological changes can be documented.----------------------------------------------------------------------

Many stats about sensitivity, positive predictive value, accuracy, even the linear regression

Acute UTI in pregnancy
rarely symptomatic ?F


Copper IUD mode of action:
?T sperm motility
?T microthrombi
?T intervent ovary movement

MRI:
ionising radiation F
no adverse effect on fetus T
detect fetal cardiac abn ?F ( I think it will be very small)

USG:
probe: array of magnets? ?F
doppler to detect fetal heart movement T

facial hair increased by:
oestrogen?F
testerone?T
spirolactone F ( I think it is used for treating hirsutism)

Mycobacteria
?T strict ?? *(nor sure which word they use ) aerobic

-------------------------------------------------------------------
48---if a distribution of results is markedly skewed to the left(sep2000)
a-the mean is same as 50th centile— f
b-the same no of values lie on either side of the median- t
c-the mode is equal to the median- f
d-the students test should be used to compare this distribution with another- f
e-logrithmic transformation of the results will produce a distribution close to normal-t


-concerning the ablity of a test to predict disease
a-sensitivity is the ablity to predict those with disease correctly T
b--sensitivity is the same as positive predictive value F
c-the confidence interval must cross 1 to prove significance t (NOT A MUST as CI at 1 is perfect )
d-an odds ratio of 1;3 implies the risk of 33% f
e--an odds ratio of 2 indicates a halving of risk F

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1-SUCCESSFUL LACTATION IS
a-maintained by estrogen --
b-maintained by progesterone --
c-initiated by prolactin surge--
d-maintained by human placental lactogen
e-inhibited by dopamine –


2-THE RELEASE OF CATECHOLAMINES FROM THE ADRENAL MEDULLA INCREASES
a-during sleep—
b-when the nerves to adrenal glands are stimulated—
c-when the blood sugar rises—
d- immediately following a myocardial infarction—
e- in the presence of pheochromocytoma—T
F-DURING ACUTE HAEMORRHAGE—

3- In the pathogenesis of thrombosis
a-prostacyclin induces platelet aggregation—
b-plateletes synthesis thromboxane A2--
c-thromboxane A2 induces vasoconstriction--
d-contact with subendothelial collagen causes platelete aggregation--
e-thrombin inhibits platelete aggregation—


--4- CONVERSION OF GLUCOSE TO LACTIC ACID
a-occurs in single enzymatic reaction—
b-is the only pathway for synthesis of ATP in red blood cells—
C-is a reversible process in skeletal muscle
d- is inhibited by high cellular conc of ATP-
e-occurs in skeletal muscle when availability of oxygen is limited-

5-GLUCOCORTICOIDS
a- promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis-
b- suppress uptake of glucose by muscle-
c—promotes protein breakdown-
d—promotes fat breakdown-
e-increase glycolysis in adipose tissue-

6-Actinomycete israelii

1-Is a fungus—
2- forms yellow granules in pus –
3-is a commensal in mouth--
4- is a commensal in vagina--
5- is usually resistant to penicillin—

7-Following substances increase the serum uric acid concentration(
a-colchicine--
b-chlorothiazide--
c-allopurinol--
d-probenecid--
e-phenylbutazone—


7--THE FOLLOWING ARE INHERITED AS AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE CONDITIONS

A. tuberous sclerosis.
b-phenylketonuria--
C. ahondroplasia.--
D. sickle cell anaemia-
E. Von Giek l disease.—

8-. Genes on sex chromosomes are responsible for the inheritance of (
A. glucose-&pbosphate dehydrogenase defiency.
B. defective colour vision.—
C. hairy ear rims. –
D. homocystinuria.
E. Hurler syndrome.

9-in human a haploid no of chromosomes is found in)

a-red blood cells-
b-blastocysts-
c-primary oocytes-.
d-the first polar body-
e-spermatozoa-


10-osteoprosis is associated with
a-an increase in uncalcified bone matrix(osteoid tissue
b-prolonged oestrogen therapy—
c-a normal histological bone structure-
d-bone fracture—
e-irregularity of epiphyseal plates—


11-THE FOLLOWING HAVE an anti-emetic effect
a-hyoscine bromide—
b-morphine sulphate—
c-chlorpropamide--
d-promethazine hydrochloride—
e-perphenazine—

12CLOMIFENE CITRATE
a- is an antiandrogen—
b-does not stimulate ovulation directly—
c-can produce visual disturbances--
d-is generally prescribed throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle—
e-in the treatment of anovulation increases the risk of multiple pregnancy—

13--if a distribution of results is markedly skewed to the left
a-the mean is same as 50th centile
b-the same no of values lie on either siDe of the median
c-the mode is equal to the median-
d-the students test should be used to compare this distribution with another-
e-logrithmic transformation of the results will produce a distribution close to normal-

15. when a man has hemophilia
a. 50% of his daughters would not expected to be carriers –
b. 25% of his sons expected to be carriers
c. Good medical control of blood definition reduce the risk of this condition in his children
d. His new born child is likely to require an urgent blood transfusion -
e. His sister has 50% probability of being a carrier


16- THE INTERSTITIAL CELL (LEYDIG) OF THE TESTIS
a--secrete seminal fluid—
b-are stimulated by LH –
c-secrete androgen binding protein—
d-secrete fructose –
e-produce testosterone T in response to LH --

17--CONCERNING VIRUSES
a-the core of every virus contain RNA—
b-they usually produce intracellelur toxin causing cell death

c-antibodies are directed against capsular protein—
d- they can be grown in intact cells--
e-interferone are synthetic

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Re: 2007 exam collecting

Post  AHMMED ALSIR on Mon Jan 02, 2012 12:10 pm

thank alot can i find the rest of the answer

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